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H2 measurements in mice


Analyzing gas cavity formation at implant sites

Magnesium materials show promising for the development for the biodegradable implants. This material has the advantage of being light in weight, being generally non-toxic and having physical and mechanical properties resembling bone. However, the material suffers from the formation of gas cavities at implantation sites. 

This phenomenon has been known for decades, but the exact gas composition has been unknown. Magnesium implants corrode rapidly in aqueous environments by oxidation of Mg to Mg2+ as water is reduced to H2 and OH-. Kuhlmann et al (2012) used the Unisense H2 microsensor to determine H2 concentration in the gas cavities and to monitor how quickly H2 exchanged with the environment. 

In situ H2 measurements

Magnesium alloy implants were placed in subcutaneous pockets in mice. During measurements the anesthetized mouse was positioned on a swiveling table. The Unisense H2 microsensor was connected to the Microsensor Multimeter and positioned in a micromanipulator to measure H2 concentration on the skin on top of the gas cavities. H2 concentration was measured 0, 2, 5 and 10 days post-surgery.

Based on microsensor results Kuhlmann et al showed that H2 could be detected on the skin on top of the gas cavities as well as in the cavities. However, the H2 concentration was very low, which led the research team to the conclusion that H2 produced during implant corrosion was quickly exchanged with the environment. Due to the fast response and high sensitivity of the Unisense H2 microsensor, it was possible to detect variations in H2 concentration in and at the gas cavities. 

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Zhao, Daoli et al (2018), In vivo quantification of hydrogen gas concentration in bone marrow surrounding magnesium fracture fixation hardware using an electrochemical hydrogen gas sensor, Acta Biomaterialia, 559 - 566, vol. 73 Read abstract

Kuhlmann, Julia et al (2013), Fast escape of hydrogen from gas cavities around corroding magnesium implants, Acta Biomaterialia, 8714 - 8721, vol. 9 Read abstract

Kamimura, Naomi et al (2011), Molecular hydrogen improves obesity and diabetes by inducing hepatic FGF21 and stimulating energy metabolism in db/db mice, Obesity, 1396 - 1403, vol. 19 Read abstract

Han, Yong, Sun et al (2011), The protective role of hydrogen-rich saline in experimental liver injury in mice, Journal of Hepatology, 471 - 480, vol. 54 Read abstract

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